ISSN: 1816-0379

Volume 14, Issue 2

Volume 14, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2015, Page 1-144

Pathogenesis effect of Fusarium equiseti on different date palm cultivars and its biological control

Alaa N. Ahmed

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-17

The results of this study showed the ability of fungus Fusarium equiseti to cause infection on the date palm leaves inoculated with the fungus, and to the ability to infect all cultivars of date palm . showed that the Halawii and Sayer cultivars were the most sensitive to the articial infection compared to other cultivars, Sayer cultivar the highest rate of the development of infection reached to 42.66 mm, followed by Halawii cultivar at a rate of 40.66 mm and a lower rate of infection was noticed in Berhi cultivar as infection rate was 30.66 mm. The also study revealed that F.equiseti has an ability to produce cellulase and phenol oxidase,the enzymatic space reached to 5.6 and 6.3 mm respectively . Also it was showed that the bio agent Trichoderma harzianum was the most active in inhibition of the growth of pathogenic F.equiseti on PDA, the inhibition percentage reached to 68.11%.

Comparative anatomical study of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) procallus Hilwaii cultivar produced by different plant auxins.

Esraa A.R. H. Al-Samir; Mohammed H. Abass; Sabeh D. Al-Utbi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 18-34

The present study has been conducted to define any adverse consequences of different plant auxins including 2, 4-D; NAA and Dicamba on the cells of date palm procallus of Hillawii cv. Cross anatomical sections has been performed on procallus cells produced by these auxin treatments. Results revealed the significant damages which caused by 2, 4-D at high concentration (100 mg/ l), these damages were evident by dense distribution patterns of tannin compounds across the whole tissues.These patterns were accompanied with a severe and high percentage of browning (80 %) for examined procallus, compared with the same auxin at low concentration (50 mg/ l), which showed a restricted distribution pattern of tannin compounds beneath epidermal cells, hence, all the examined procallus of this treatment were healthy with no browning phenomenon, followed by the treatments of NAA and Dicamba.

Additionally, our results explained that the treatment of 2, 4-D at high concentration (100 mg/ l) led to an evident histological change of examined procallus, the thickness of parenchyma tissue cells were increased, both length and width were reached the averages of 77 and 52 µm, respectively, this increase was accompanied with a reduction in the cell number which was 653 cells, compared with what were observed at low concentration of 2, 4-D (50 mg/ l) which reported the number of cells 671.5 cells, and a size of 57.5 and 42.5 µm, respectively. It's noteworthy that the treatment of 2, 4-D at 100 mg/ l led to reduce the thickness of epidermal cells which found to be 27.5 µm, in comparison with 37.5; 35 and 37.5 µm in 2, 4-D (50 mg/ l); NAA and Dicamba, respectively.

Effect of pollen source on embryogenesis of the flower date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L. ) CV.Hillawi and Sayer.

Ebtihaj H. AL; Temimi; M. F. Abbas; Wassan F. F. Al-apresam

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 35-54

The present study was carried out in a private orchard with the objective of studying the effect of pollen source on embryogenesis of the date palm flowers cvs Hillawi and Sayer. The results showed that, the pollen source Ghannami Akhder led to asignificantly higher length and width of the ovary and the ovule reaching ( 1931.1, 1707, 581.3, 448.1) µm respectively, in particular in the CV.Hillawi. the highest increase in those same characteristics (1959.6, 1776, 609.9,470.1) µm respectively, Fourty five days after from pollination increased significantly in those same characteristics ( 3596.1, 3354, 943, 657.4) µm respectively. the results showed that the growth and development of the flower and the timing of fertilization depends on the type of pollen source. For the CV. Hillawi and Sayer the growth of pollen tube and fertilization occurred two days after pollination for both cvs, Using the pollen source Ghannami Akhder, and three days for the female flowers pollinated with Smasmii, nine days after pollination, the growth and development of one carpel ovule whereas the decay of carpel ovules for female flowers pollinated with pollen Ghannami Akhder However, the decay of other carpels occurred after nine days from pollination for flowers pollinated with the pollen source Smasmii. Fourty five days after pollination, there was a significant increase in length and width of the core of the fruit and the seed, furthermore, and there was a decrease in tannin cells number and increasing the sizes

The efficiency of Bacillus subtilis and Salicylic Acid on the growth and pathogenecity of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon the causal agent of Date Palm offshoot decline

Naji Salim Jassim

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 55-75

The present study has been performed to survey number of date palm orchards at Al- Hartha and Shaat - Alarab areas :for the date palm offshoots decline disease as well as identify the potential pathogens ,The percentage of infection was found to be 17 and 34%at AL-Hartha and Shaat –AL-Arab respectively ,different fungal species have been isolated ,Most frequent fungi were as follow : Fusarium moniliforme ;Chalaropsis radicicola ;Thielaviopsis paradoxa and F.oxysporum respectively .Pathogenecity result analysis revealed the pathogenic ability of F.moniliforme which reported the values of 55 and 40% ,as infection percent for AL.hartha and shaat .ALarab isolate respectively .Antegonistic test showed the inhibition efficiency of bacterium Bacillus subtilis and salicylic acid (0.8mM) on PDA and reported 100 and 83.2% respectively .Green house experiment results elucidated the inhibition efficiency of both bacterial bioagent B.subtilis and SA in reducing the pathogensis affects of F.moniliforme on date palm , the infection percent was26.76% compared to pathogen treatment (untreated) which was 66.67% .All growth parameters were fresh and dry weight of date palm shoot and root system and total chlorophyll content at both B.subtilis and SA combination were significantly increased compared to control (untreated) treatment.

Effect of spraying chitosan on yield and some physical , chemical and physiological characteristics of date palm fruits Phoenix dactylifera L. cvs. Barhi and Bream

Hamza A.Hamza; Dhia Ahmed Taain; Abass M.Jasim

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 76-103

The present study was conducted on date palm fruits, cvs. Barhi and Bream during the growing season 2014. The aim of the study was to investigate effects of spraying chitosan at the concentrations of 0% , 1% , 2% on yield and some physical , chemical and physiological characteristics of fruits. The experiment included 9 trees for both cvs. Complete Randomized Block Design was used with three replicates . The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance of factorial experiment and mean values were compared using the Revised Least Significant Difference Test at 0.05 probability level .The results of study showed significant effect of spraying chitosan at the concentrations of 2% on the most of the studied parameters (length , diameter , fresh weight , size of fruits , yield , water content, total acidty and yield in addition to delay the ripening of fruits for both cvs. Untreated fruits retain the highest percentage of total soluble solids , total sugars , reducing sugars and total protein. Invertase and cellulase activities decreased in fruits treated with chitosan as compared with untreated fruits which recorded the highest activity of invertase and cellulase for both cvs.

Effect of Foliar Spray of Environmental Stress Compounds on Some Anatomical Characters and Ripening percentage of Fruits of Phoenix dactylifera L. CV .Hillawi

Muntaha A.A; Huda A.A; Ali H.M. Attaha

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 104-129

أجريت هذه الدراسة على أشجار نخيل التمر صنف الحلاوي النامية في احد البساتين الأهلية بمنطقة ابي الخصيب – محافظة البصرة أثناء موسم النمو 2014 لغرض معرفة تأثير الرش الورقي بمحاليل الفيجامينو والدرن بالتركيزين (2 و4 ) مل.لتر -1 وحامض الاسكوربيك بالتركيزين (500 و1000 )ملغم .لتر-1 ، وعدد الرشات في بعض الصفات التشريحية ونسبة النضج للثمار، وأظهرت النتائج تفوق معاملة الرش بحامض الاسكوربيك بتركيز 1000ملغم .لتر -1 معنويا في سمك طبقتي الاكسوكارب والميزوكارب الخارجي في الثمرة، في حين تفوقت المعاملة 500ملغم .لتر-1 حامض الاسكوربيك معنويا في سمك طبقة الميزوكارب الداخلي في الثمرة. كما تفوقت معاملة الرش بالفيجامينو بتركيز 2مل.لتر-1 معنويا في طول الخلية وعرضها في طبقة الميزوكارب الداخلي في الثمرة ، في حين تفوقت المعاملة 4 مل .لتر-1 درن معنويا في عدد الخلايا بالملم2 الواحد من طبقة الميزوكارب الداخلي في الثمرة والمعاملة درن تركيز2مل .لتر-1 في نسبة نضج الثمار .وبينت النتائج ايضا وجود فروقات معنوية لعدد الرشات في طول الخلية وعرضها ونسبة نضج الثمار ، في حين لم تظهر فروقات معنوية لهذا العامل في الصفات التشريحية الأخرى .واظهــر التداخل الثنائي بين الفيجامينو بتركيز 2مل.لتر-1 ولرشتين تفوقاً معنويا في عرض الخلية ونسبة نضج الثمار ،في حين تفوق التداخل بين الفيجامينو بتركيز 2مل.لتر-1 ولثلاث رشات معنويا في سمك منطقة الاكسوكارب وعدد الخلايا في الملم2 الواحد . وتفوق التداخل الثنائي بين الفيجامينو بتركيز 2مل.لتر-1 ولرشة واحدة في طول الخلية ، في حين تفوق التداخل الثنائي بين الفيجامينو بتركيز 4 مل .لتر-1 ولرشتين في سمك طبقة الميزوكارب الخارجي والتداخل الثنائي بين حامض الاسكوربيك بتركيز 500 ملغم.لتر-1 ولرشة واحدة معنويا في سمك طبقة الميزوكارب الداخلي في الثمرة .

The efficiency of some biological factors in controlling of lesser date moth Bantrachedra amydraula on date palm

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 130-144

The present study has been conducted in Shaat_al-Areb area of Basra governorate during the cultivation season of 2014 to evaluate the effect of some bio insecticides including Oxymatrine, Bacillus thuringiensis and Trichoderma harzianum , as well as , the parasitoid Bracon hebetor . Results revealed the strong effect of Oxymatrine, Bacillus thuringiensis and Trichoderma harzianum on both the larvae of lesser moth and the adults of parasitoid with averages of mortality 97.6% and 96.1% , respectively, while. The lowest percentages of mortality were observed 42.6% and 8.5% the larvae of the lesser moth and adults of parasitoid B. hebetor Field trail explained the synergistic effect of the combination between the parasitoid and insecticides in reducing the infestation percentage of date palm by lesser moth insect; the lowest percentage was recorded at the treatment of oxymatrin and the parasitoid B. hebetor on date palm fruits, compared with 10.3% of control treatmen̓t the lowest fruit drop percentage was 11.5% at the treatment of oxymatrin and parasitoid compared to control treatment which was 24.5% .