ISSN: 1816-0379

Volume 9, Issue 2

Volume 9, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2010, Page 1-146


Effect of vitamin E on some callus and embryos characteristics of date palm cv.barhee propagated by in vitro

Oraas T. Yaseen; Usama N.J Almeer

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-12

This study was conducted in the laboratory of tissue culture of the Palm Research Center in 2007 to find out the effect of adding different concentrations of vitamin E for the media and see its effect on the percentage of browning and growth of the Callus initial and the formation of embryos, were culturing on 100 mg of callus initial media container salts MS the forces of complete and sucrose 30 g / liter activated charcoal 3 g / l and plant growth of naphthalene acetic acid concentration of 30 mg / L and cytokines 2ip concentration of 3 mg / L and different concentrations of vitamin E (zero, 50,100,150 mg / L) and incubated explants under severe lighting 1000 lux and the temperature in 27±1, was carried out of agriculture every 4 weeks, and results showed the following:
1 - The addition of vitamin E for the media has reduced the percentage of browning of explants in difference significant comparison with treatment without vitamin D, as the percentage of browning 30% at a concentration of 100 mg / L compared with control treatment, which amounted to a rate of browning 90%.
2 - The addition of vitamin E for the media add to increase the percentage of the response of growth reaching 80.3% at a concentration of 100 mg / L, while the percentage reduced to 40% in the treatment comparison.
3 - increased rate of weight of embryo callus at a concentration of 100 mg / l as the rate of 280 mg, while decreased to 130 mg in the treatment of comparison, also helped add the vitamin to be vegetative embryos in less time as possible as it was 32 days at a concentration of 100 mg / liter significant difference from control treatment, which amounted to 52 days.
4 - The results showed that the addition of vitamin E concentration of 100 mg / L led to give the highest rate of vegetation as the number of embryos was 17 compared to the treatment comparison of embryos, which was the average number of embryos vegetative three embryos.

Diseases of date palms (phoenix dactylifera L.)

H.B.Jansson; L.V.Lopez Lorca; Samir K.Abdullah

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-44

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important fruit trees growing in the Arabian world and some neighboring countries and represents a good cash crop for many farmers. Palm diseases are among the major factors that affecting the products. Fungi and Phytoplasma are known as the most causal pathogens on date palm trees. The present study is an attempt to provide an update informations on the previously known as well as the recently reported pathogens on date palm trees. The causal pathogens, their associated symptoms, distribution, known epidemiology and possible control strategies are discussed.

Effect of pollen source on some changes in endogenous hormones in fruits of date palm( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Hillawi

Aqeel H. AbdulWahid; Katheem A. Abbas; Muayed F. Abbas

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 13-20

This study was carried out on date palm fruit cv. Hillawi at Abuo- Alkaseeb – Basrah during the growth season of 2009 to test the hypotheses of Swingle ," that the metaxenic effect is related to endogenous hormone product by the embryo or endosperm" . The result ,showed that changed in endogenous hormones (cytokinins and abscisic acid) correlated with their physiologic role.The levels of cytokinins were high during earliest stages of fruit growth which coincide with cell division stage, but there were a raped decline in level of this endogenous hormone as the fruit entered the stage of physiological maturity (Khalal stage), but heighest level in ABA. The pollen source had a significant effect on hormone level , with fruit produced by Khikri Adi pollen had the highest cytokinin . Fruit produced by Ghannami Akder had the highest level of ABA as compared with the fruit produced by KhiKri Adi .The result obtained in the present work , gave a strong support to Swingle's hypothesis of Metaxenia

Diagnosis of some symptoms on the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L.

Ramiz Mahdi Salih Al-Asadi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 21-31

This study was conducted for diagnose of some symptoms that observed on the date palms orchards , as the study included a field survey of 12 orchard and three districts of the Abu Al-khasseb, Shatt al-Arab and Karmat Ali, It was observed through the spread of cases of diseases , injuries insects and a decline of date palm , regions were involved in the emergence of these cases.
The results showed that the fungi Fusarium moniliforme and
Curvularia tuberculata were isolated the were represented as causes agent of symptoms of palm undiagnosed previously, which were found on the samples brought to the Lab.
Pathogenicity test showed the ability of the fungi F. moniliforme and C. tuberculata to shown symptoms of infection to inoculated fronds .
The field and microscopic examination indicated that the insect termite and the larger date moth Arenipses sabella had a role in the appearance of symptoms of a new injury on the palm as sudden fall of the fronds and bunches deformation.
The study also revealed that some cases of death and decline of the palm caused by external non biotic causes .

Effect of spraying and irrigation with NPK in the growth of date palm plantlets (Phoenix dactylifera L). Berhi CV propagated by in vitro

Oraas T. Yaseen; Usama N.J Al-meer

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 32-45

This study was conducted in the laboratory of tissue culture of the date Palm Research Center / University of Basra in 2007 to determine the effect of spraying and irrigation with different concentrations of fertilizer triple NPK is (zero, 300 600 and 900 mg / L) in the growth of plantlets date palm Berhi propagated by in vitro. The results showed the following:
1 - increase the proportion of plantlets acclimatization when sprayed fertilizer triple concentration 600 mg / L and lead a moral for the rest of the concentrations, amounting to 100% compared to the treatment of comparison 30%, and the watering plantlets fertilizer triple led to a significant increase in the proportion of plantlets acclimatization it reached 90% compared to the treatment of comparison 30%
2 - The results showed that spraying with (600 mg / L) have been led to give the highest rate of leaves the new formed and was (4) leaves / plantlet and (3) leaves / plantlet through the process of irrigation, while the number of new leaves was 1 in the treatment of comparison .
3 - The results showed that the spray irrigation concentrate (600 mg / L) gave the highest rate of leaf length and total (26.75 22.35) cm and a difference of moral for the rest of the concentrations and the lowest rate to the length of the leaves was in the treatment of comparison and total (13.19 cm).
4 -: The spraying and irrigation focusing (600 mg / L) has led to accord the highest rate of roots formed and reached (8.14) and (6.95), respectively, a difference of moral the treatment in the case of spraying, while given treatment comparison less with the rate of the roots formed ahead significant for the other treatments (1.57).
5 - The results showed that spraying with 600 mg / L led to reduce the time for the emergence of the first leave it reached a new 20-day period, while the period increased to 34 days in the treatment comparison.
6 - The process of spraying plantlets fertilizer triple concentration of 600 mg / L led to a significant increase in the amount of total chlorophyll, amounting to 3.86 mg / 100 gm weight is tender and a significant increase in the amount of wax, amounting to 0.0996% and a significant increase also in the average number of stomata in the leaves as of 104 gaps / mm 2.

A study of content of trace elements and phenolic compound leaves and fruits of Braim and Hillawi Cultivars of date palms and effect on product and fruit set

Sammera M.Al-samaraee; Abdul kareem M. abd; Zainb J. mussa

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 46-67

This is study of the quality of Shatt-Al-Arab water in two locations in Hamadan canal .It also investigation the effect of this water on two cultivars of date palms planted on the shores of Al-shatt .The following chemical indicators were specified for inverstigation :Hydrogyn exponent (pH),Electric connection (EC)Total dissolved solids (T.D.S),chloride (Cl),calcium(Ca),iron(Fe) and cadmium(cd). The results revealed that shatt-Al-Arab water in the two location is saline .It is also shown that pH values fall within the normal limits as stated by FAO(International organization of Food and Agriculture).The T.D.S were within the permitted limits; CL was in its highest value in station 2 in summer and in its lowest value in station 1 in winter. Ca and Fe were like CL in their behavior whereas Cd was in its highest value in station 1 in winter and in its lowest value in station 1 in summer .Summer had value which were higher than those of winter concerning CL,Ca.Fe and Cd in the soil of both stations 1 and 2. The results also revealed significant variation among the cultivars ,the seasons and the stations of the study, Al-Hillawi cultivars and winter gave the highest value concerning Fe and Cd in the leaves , station 1 from Cd and station 2 respectively. The same can be said about overlaps which had significant variation in values .
As far as the fruit is concerned ,the highest value was in station 1 from Fe,Cd and the cultivar of date did not have any significant effect .It was also revealed ,in the study ,that there was significant effect on the overlaps on the content of the trace elements in the fruits. Over the winter season and Hallawi cultivare and the remote site in the phenolic content, was also marked by the summer growing season and variety of Hallawi hand, and with the remote site the other hand, the moral status of the same, respectively, also showed a statistical analysis product than Hallawi and the remote site significantly (overlaps bilateral) had either triple overlap The Hallawi of summer and the remote site and distinguish moral from the rest of the transaction. the content of fruit phenolic compounds have killed the remote location of the item was not significantly affected by either overlap has shown that the remote site and the Hallawi of moral superiority.

Effect Of Date Palm Density , Sayer And Hellaui in Some Soil Physical And Chemical And date fruits Properties

Abdul-Rahman D. Al-Hamad

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 68-78

The study was carried on the season 2008 in Abu-Alkassib county in Basrah, To find out the effect of Date palm (low and high intensity) on some physical and chemical soil and yield properties of two cultivars Sayer and Hillawi.
The results showed that increase value of (organic matter, pH. MWD, total porosity and water content), in high density of date palm area compared with the low density of plant area , which showed increase in(bulk density, EC) and high density of palm give significant increase in some yield properties such as meazocarp weight, meazocarp/seed ratio, bunch weight and total soluble solids (TSS). The results also showed negative relationships between the bulk density, electrical conductivity with (weight, meazocarp/seed ratio, bunch weight and total solid solution ratio (TSS)) while, the organic matter , total porosity showed positive relationships with the some product properties above.

Isolation and diagnose of fungi associated with the cultivation of tissues of five cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and the effect of fungicide Benlate in control .

A. A.S.Al-khalifa; A. N. Ahmed; A. M. W.AL-Mayahi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 79-97

this study was Carried during the growing season 2009 in the laboratories of the Date Palm Research Center at the University of Basra, the aim of this study to isolate and diagnose fungi associated with the cultivation of date palm tissue and the effect of fungicide Benlate in control . Where isolated and diagnosis of several species fungal of five different cultivars of date palm (Quantar , Auwaidy , Khadrawi , Hillawi and Brahi). Where record two types of fungus Chaetomium on explants of the Auwaidy cultivar (c. atrobrunnenm and C. globosum) and record type (C. Strumarium) on Khadrawi cultivar . Recorded presence of two types of the fungus Aspergillus sp. On Quantar cultivar and another type of fungi on Auwaidy cultivar . Fungi Aspergillus niger on Khadrawi cultivar . Also recorded three types of the fungus Fusarium sp. on cultivars (Quantar, Auwaidy and Khadrawi) separately.Wheras the flower buds were recorded fungi (Aspergillus sp. .F.solani and Gilmaniella humicola) on the Halawi cultivar. And recorded two types of the fungus Alternaria sp. On the Barhi cultivar . The study also demonstrated that dipping explants (Apical buds, axillary buds, leafs primordial and flower buds) in Benlate with concentrations (75 and 150 mg / L) for three minutes contributed to the reduction of pollution fungi compared with non-immersion (treatment control). The percentage of contamination decreased to (4.16% , 4.16% , 0.0% ,0.0% and 4.16%) at Benlate 150 mg / L, for cultivars Quantar , Auwaidy, Khadrawi , Hillawi and Brahi respectively compared to the treatment of control (non-immersion) that the percentage of pollution fungi which (29.16% and 37.5% and 20.83% and 33.33% and 41.66% for five cultivars under study respectively.

Effect of ethephon treatment in enzymic activity and some physical , Chemical and physiological character For Date Palm Fruits Kedrawi c.v.

Aqeel Hoseen Abdulrawf

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 98-109

The present study was carried out during season (2008) , to investigation the effect of Ethyphon treatment ( 0,500,1000,1500 )ppm on some physiohogical and chemical characteristic of date palm fruit c.v. Kedrawi . The sample take daily after treatment until fifth day , The results showed the Ethyphon treatment (1500 ppm) gives significant increase in enzyme activation (invertas , cellulose) , total and reducing sugar , but there were significant decrease in sucrose , However there were no significant effect on acidity and fruit weight.

Certain physico-chemical changes of seeded and parthenocarpic fruits date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv . Hillawi

Muntaha A Ati; ayed F Abass

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 110-131

Change in certain physilo-chemical were studied for seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of the date palm cv. Hillawi .The result indicated that seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of the date palm cv. Hillawi have single sigmoidal growth curve, which have three stages the log phase of growth which lasted for six weeks and eight weeks in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. The fruits there entered the log phase of growth, during which the growth rate of the fruit occurred rapidly until 12th and 13th week after pollination for seeded and parthenocarpic fruits respectively . There after, the fruits enter a steady state of growth , douing which the seeded fruit continued growth till it reached their maximum fresh weight at the Khalal stage. As for, parthenocarpic fruits there was aslow increase in growth rate until the fruits reached the Khalal stage (24th week after pollination ) at which the fruits reached their maximum fresh weight .The results showed that fresh weight for parthenocarpic fruit were much lower than those of the seeded fruit. Water content for seeded and parthenocarpic fruits reached a maximum value at the 10th and 14th week after pollination respectively, there was a sharp drop in water content for seeded fruit as it entered the Tamer stage, whereas water content of the parthenocarpic fruit was high till the end of the growing season, whereas the reverse was true for changes in percentage dry matter .The total soluble solids reached a peak value of as the seeded fruits entered the Tamer stage. However in parthenocarpic fruits , total soluble solids was low and reached maximum value of 11.2 % at 15th week after pollination , and there was no increase in total soluble solids till the end of the growing season (18th week after pollination ). Sucrose accumulation reached a peak value at the end of Khalal stage in seeded fruits, followed by rapid inversion of sucrose reaching the lowest value at the Tamer stage, which coincided with rapid accumulation of reducing sugars and total sugars. For parthenocarpic fruits, there was no sucrose inversion, and there was a slow increase in reducing and total sugars, and the concentrations were lows than those of seeded fruits

The source of Bacterial Contamination in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Grown Invitro

Muna A. Y. Al-Mussawii

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 132-146

This study was conducted to determine types of bacteria contaminating three types of callus of date palm cultivars (Al-sayer,Al-kentar, Albream ) and comparated with types of bacteria that isolated from shoot tips of healthy offsets of date palm grown in tissue culture media .Four genera of bacteria were identified from contamination detected (24-48h )after grown culture (External contamination )these are ;(Bacillus 39% ,Staphylococcus 31% ,Escheritia 21% , Serratia 8%) while Bacillus was the only genus isolated from contamination detected (4-8 weeks)after growing cultures``(internal contamination ) . identification of genus Bacillus showed the prevalence of B subtillus from External contamination and the species B circulans from internal contamination and shoot tips of healthy offsets of date palm . B circulans that isolated from internal contamination and shoot tips of healthy offsets of date palm showed sensitivity to antibiotic Setreptomycin at the concentration 0.75 while the antibiotic Gentamycin showed inhibiting activity at the concentration 0.50 agianest the species B circulans .