ISSN: 1816-0379

Volume 9, Issue 1

Volume 9, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2010, Page 1-99

Metaxenic Effect of pollen grains Cultivars on The infestation of Two Date Palm Cultivars Hillawi and Sayer By Lesser Date Moth Batrachedra amydraula Merck and Dust Mite Oligonychus afrasiaticus Mcg.

Aqeel. A. Al-Khalifa; Ansam. M. Al-Kaby; Nasser. H. Al-Dosary

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

This study was conducted during 2008 season in one of Abu-alkhasib orchards to study the effect metaxenic of four different pollen grain cultivars (Gannami Akhder, Gannami Ahmer, Khikri Werdi, and Khikri Adee) on two females cultivars (Hillawi and Sayer) and infestation by lesser date moth Batrachedra amydraula Merck and dust mite
Oligonychus afrasiaticus Mcg. Moisture content of fruits and was and phenolic compounds were calculated.
Results showed that fruits pollinated by Gannami Akhder caused the lest infestation and less fruit dropping by lesser date moth was 5.30% and less infestation dust mite was14.08 mite/fruit. Fruit that pollinated by Gannami Ahmer recorded less infestation percentage by dust mite which was 24.4%. The highest percentage of infestation and fruit drooping by lesser date moth came form fruit pollinated Khikri Adee which was 13.5% and highest infestation percentage and infestation severity by dust mite 40.7% and 18.83 mite/fruit respectively.
Sayer cultivar had less fruit dropping by lesser date moth and less infestation by dust mite comported with Hillawi cultivar, fruit that pollinated by Gannami Akhder were highest in strand weight 81.56gm whereas, fruit pollinated by Khikri Adee had strand less weight was 46.36gm. Fruit strand weight of Gillawi was higher than that of Sayer (76.30, 62.17 gm)respectively.
Moisture content, waxes, and phenolic compound were varied according to the pollination sources and female cultivars.

Effect of Dust deposits in Physical and Chemical characteristics of Fruits and Leaves of Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera L.

Ghazwan F. Khalaf

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 16-34

This study was conducted to know the Dust deposits effects in some leaves characteristics ( the leaves content of chlorophyll) ,besides physical characteristics of the fruits such as( fruits weight , seeds weight , fruits length and fruits dimeter), Also the chemical characteristics of fruits such as( water content , total heavy metals and glucose rate) on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Abu-alkhaseb region in Basrah governarate in 2009 season .
Result shows different on chlorophyll contain in leaves between carrying dust trees and leaves of far trees from the dusting road, that higher chlorophyll A reach to 0.98mg/100g , 0.92mg/100g respectively ,while the leaves of the far date palm from dust road was higher on the contains of chlorophyll B reach to 2.59mg/100g , the Barhi caltivare was significatntly different on chlorophyll B reach to 2.70mg/100g , while the higher total chlorophyll was in date palm leaves of far dust road reach to 3.53mg/100g , the Barhi caltivare was different significatntly on total chlorophyll reach to 3.69mg/100g.
Result shows that there is adifferent in the total weight of the fruit and was the highest weisht is the fruit of the far date palm from dust road reach 9.01gm and 9.02 respectively and highest seed weight for the fruit of the far date palm from dust road fruit reach 1.21gm and highest seed weight for Helawii caltivare was 1.35gm and the longer fruit of the far date palm from dust road reach 3.71 cm and longest fruit was for Saier caltivare reach 3.44cm and longest fruit of the far date palm from dust road diameter was 2.27cm while the results show that the longest diameter for Khadrawii and Barhei caltivare and reach 2.23cm and 2.18cm respectively.
The result show that the highest humidity ratio was in fruit of the far date palm from dust road Helawii and Saier caltivare reach 46.25% and 45.36% respectively, and it appear that the more ratio of solid materials wich dissolved in totally was in Saier caltivare reach 30.74% , sucrose 95% , reducted sugurs and total sugars more in fruit of the far date palm from dust road reach 3.07% , 21.00%, 24.07% respectively.

Effect of Laser Radiation on Propagation of Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Cv. Barhi In vitro

Ansam M. Al-Kaabi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 49-66

This experiment was conducted to find the effect of exposure period of Laser radiation (10,20,30) second and (0)as a control treatment, distance (1,2)cm. at wave length(630-660)nm and power 2mw on embryogenic callus and somatic embryos of date palm Cv. Berhi.
Results showed that the Laser treatments had a significant effect on callus fresh and dry weight ,somatic embryos number., embryos lengths ,germination percentage. leave length, root lengths ,fresh and dry weight of plantlets, recorded 1.324g by 20 second.,0.086g,by 30 second , 13.830embryos by 10 second , 5.500mlm by 10 second , 45.270% by 10 second , 1.324 by 10 second , 6.760cm by 20 second , 1.491gm by 30 second , 0.131g by 30 second , respectively.
Also the treatment by 2 cm. was the best effect on callus fresh weight , somatic embryos no. leave lengths ,and plantlets dry weight recorded 1.150gm, 12.080 embryos, 1.200cm, 0.110gm respectively

Histological study of infected Date palm leaves by rachis blight caused by Serenomyces phoenicis and their control

Ramiz M. S. AL-Asadi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 67-74

This study was conducted at Date Palm Research Center, university of Basrah for the period (2007-2009), Results showed the presence of Serenomyces phoenicis inside pustules on both leaf surface whereas , fungus were not found on browning tissue section of leaves indicated that vascular tissue were free of this fungus or fungal structures . the cultural service by removal of infected leaves were as a role in disease control .

A study to identify the source of fungi contamination the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L . In vitro.

Luna Q. Mohsin

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 75-83

This study was conducted in the labs. of Date palm research center- Basrah University, from ( 1. 3 . 2009 – 1 . 10 . 2009 ) Isolation of five species of fungi from the shoot tip of three cultivars of date palm ( Braim, Hillawi and Sayer) were carried out , wich are Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp. Penicillium sp ., Alternaria alternata ., and Rhizopus sp. ,
Also Isolation and of seven species of fungi that contaminate the callus tissue cultures of three cultivars of date palm ( Braim, Hillawi and Sayer) were carried out, wich are A. alternata, Penicillium sp., A. niger , A.clavatus, Ulocclodium atrum , Rhizopus sp. and Stemphylium sp., Also the study showes that the fungi A. niger و Rhizopus sp و A. alternata و and Penicillium sp . are the same before and after invitro culture .
Evalution of three fungicide agenst the fungi isolated from the shoot tip revealed that Mancozab the most effective fungicide that give inhibited percentage 92.7 % compare white the other fungicide Switch and Ridomal gold M 272 , witch give inhibited percentage % 82 and % 54.6 .

Isolation and Identification of Fungi Associated With Date Palms Phoenix dactylifera Offshoots Decline and Death Phenomenon in Basrah / Iraq

Mohammed A. Fayyadh; Yehya A. Salih; Alaa N. Ahmed

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 84-99

This study was conducted in the laboratories of the Plant Protection Department/ Agriculture College/University of Basrah during the period of 2007-2008 in order to isolate and identify the fungi associated with the phenomenon of date palms offshoots deterioration and death in Basrah. The results of the survey study indicated that highest percentage of deterioration and death of the date palm offshoots were recorded in the Shatt Al-Arab area 18.13 and 71.38% respectively, followed by Hartha area 15.25 and 66.51% respectively. While, the lowest percentage of deterioration and death were recorded in Abu-Al-Khasseb area 4.7 and 19.05% respectively. The results showed that the death percentage of offshoots increased as the salinity and pH value increased in soil and irrigation water. On the other hand highest deterioration and death percentage of offshoots were recorded with Hillawi cultivar 17.41 and 62.59% respectively, followed by Sayer cultivar 16.19 and 62.59% respectively, while the percentage of the death of offshoots for the other cultivars such as Zahdi, Preim, Khadrawi and Pyarm was 57.57, 57.53, 56.98, 51.78% respectively. The isolation study from different parts of death and deterioration offshoots revealed isolation many fungi like Fusarium solani, F.moniliforme , Chalaropsis radicicola , Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia soloni, Cladosporium sp., Stemphylium sp. and other fungi. Among these fungi C.radicicola recorded the highest percentage of occurrence which were 91.1, 79.99 and 39.99% in Shatt Al-Arab , Al-Hartha and Abu-Al-Khasseb areas respectively. On the other hand all isolates of C.radicicola exhibited high pathogenicity of Hillawi seedlings .