ISSN: 1816-0379

Volume 7, Issue 2

Volume 7, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2008, Page 1-137


EFFECT OF AMMONIUM AND POTASSIUM NITRATE IN SOME CHARECTERISTICS OF CALLUS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOS OF DATE PALM(Phoenix dactylifera L.) BY IN VITRO

ORASS T.AL-IBRESAM; USAMA N.AL-MEER

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-16

The present study was undertaken at Tissue Culture Laboratory-Date Palm Research Center of Basrah University from January 2007 to February 2008 to determine the effect of Ammonium and Potassium nitrate on some characteristics of callus and somatic embryos of date palm cv.Barhee by in vitro.
Four concentrations of potassium nitrate were used (zero,1/2,full and double strength)and three concentrations of Ammonium nitrate were used (zero,1/2,full strength) the results showed that addition the potassium nitrate at a concentration of full strength and ammonium nitrate at concentration of 1/2 strength led to significant increase in the average of fresh weight of embryogenic callus, number of somatic embryos (354.33,321.75mg/gm fresh weight) respectively, while number of somatic embryos was 10.94,11.17 embryos respectively and the results showed that the percentage of vitrification were decreased in the media supplemented with half strength of potassium nitrate 26.37% also the percentage of vitrification were decreased in the media supplemented with free ammonium nitrate 22.29%.
The best percentage of vitrification were in the media supplemented with half strength of potassium and ammonium nitrate 15.24%.at the last the results showed that the total soluble phenols were decreased in the media supplemented with little concentration of potassium and ammonium nitrate, it reach 0.18 mg/gm dry weight in the media supplemented with half strength of potassium nitrate, while reach 0.18 mg/gm dry weight in the media supplemented with half strength of ammonium nitrate.
The best result was obtained in the media that supplemented with half strength of potassium and ammonium nitrate it reach 0.15 mg/gm dry weight.

EFFECT OF SUCROSE,LIGHT INTENSTY AND AGRICULTURE MEDIUM ON ACCLIMATION OF DATE PALM (Phoenix dactylifera L .cv.Barhee)

Abdul-Razzak.O Hassan; Abass.M.Jasim; Osama N. Al-meer

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 17-31

The present study was undertaken at tissue culture laboratory/Date Palm Research Center-Basrah university to determine the effect of some treatments on the Acclimation of date palm plantlets cultivar Barhee propagated by tissue culture, a small plantlets produced by culturing a quarter of shoot tips obtained from date palm offshoots of Barhee were used in this study, the culturing were done on solid media composed of M.S minerals and some chemicals, in addition to activated charcoal, and 30Mg/L NAA and 3Mg/L 2ip.
The main results of this study were:
1-It was found that sucrose addition at a concentration of 60 gm/L to the media led to significant increase in the rooting percentage, roots number and length in comparison with the other tested concentrations 30 and 90 gm/L, the rooting percentage was 90%, the numbers of roots 4.2 per plantlet, while the length of roots was 5.8 cm.
2-The addition of sucrose at a concentration of 60 gm/L to the media led to significant increase of the average height of plantlets and the numbers of leaves per plantlet, the plantlet height reached 8.4 cm and the number of leaves was 2.2 per plantlet.
3-Light intensity had a significant role on the growth of date palm plantlets, the increasing of light intensity from 1000 lux to 3000 lux before one month of acclimation led to promote the growth parameters & the plantlets leaves were normal in their shape.
4-The sand and peatmoss medium (3:1) showed a high efficiency on the acclimatized plantlets percentage which reached 80%.

Effect of plant growth regulators on adventitious buds formation from date palm callus (Phoenix dactylifera L.)cv.Barhee in vitro

Muaed.F.Abbas; Abbas.M.Jasim; Aqil.A.Saheem

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 32-50

The present work was conducted to study the effect of plant growth regulators on the formation of adventitious buds on the callus of the date palm cv.Barhee .A primary callus was used ,which was obtained by culturing the apical and axillary buds of Barhee offshoots .The explants were placed on solid basal (MS)medium with activated charcoal and supplemented with the auxin(NAA) at 30mg. litre-1and the cytokinin (2ip)at 3mg litre-1.The nutrient media were determined, for each proliferation stage, starting with the establishment of culture ,till the stage of plantlet regeneration from the adventitious buds. The effect of various combinations of auxins and cytokinins were tested .
The Results can be summarized as follows:-
1. Results emphasized the vital role of plant growth regulators in the induction of adventitious buds formation the callus. The combination NAA at 1 mg litre-1 and the cytokinin (2ip and BA at 5 mg litre -1)caused the formation of adventitious buds within 165.6 day, and buds number was 13.6. The same combination also gave the highest number of proliferated adventitious buds (15.3 buds).
2. Results showed that it،s at paramount importance for the presence of elongation of shoots derived from adventitious buds, which required the addition of GA3 to the culture media at low concentrations GA3 at a concentration of 5 mg litre-1 gave vigorous shoots ,with an average height of 5.9cm . The addition of adenine sulphate at concentration of 70 mg. litre-1 also produced good and vigorous shoots ,in addition to the use of sucrose at 50g. litre-1.
3. Results showed, the importance of the auxin NAA, in the stimulation of rooting of shoots that produced from adventitious buds, with the height, number of roots (4.8) and length were obtained with concentration of 0.5 mg litre-1 NAA, as compared with the same concentration of IBA.

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT SUBSTANCES ON CONTAMINATION AND GROWTH SOMATIC EMBRYOS OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) C.V ASHKAR CULTURED IN VITRO

Ahmed.R.Abdul samed; Khadim.I.Abass; Abass.M.Jasim

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 51-66

This study has been performed at tissue culture lab. – Date Palm Research Center/Basrah university to determine the effect of some natural plant on the growth development of embryogenic callus and somatic embryos .
Embryogenic callus of 6 months old of Ashkar cultivar was used for this study. This embryogenic callus was cultured on Ms medium, supplemented with the following plants materials:
1-Corn seed at conc. 12.5 and 25 g/l.
2Jujube leaves at conc. 1.25 and 2.5 g/l.
The results of this study can be summarized as follow:
1-It was found that type of medium had significant effect on the average of embryogenic callus fresh weight after 30 and 60 days from culturing. The corn seed medium had the highest average in contrast with other media, the fresh weight were 476 and 689 mg after 30 and 60 days of culture, respectively.
2-The type of the media varied in their effect on contamination percentage of embryogenic callus after 60 days from culturing the medium with Eucalyptus leaves extract at con. 12.5 and 25, 1L had no contamination (0%).
3-The culturing of embryogenic callus on Ms media with corn seed led to significant increase in the number of embryos which was 232 and 197 embryos for each conc.; respectively, while the number of embryos was decreased and reached to 54 embryos in the treatment of Eucalyptus leaves at conc. 12.5 g/l.

Isolation and identification of fungi caused date palm leaf spot in Basrah and there chemical control

Alaa. O. Mania; Mohammed A. Fayadh

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 67-81

Isolation of fungi associated with date palm leaf spot were carried out. Pathogenicity test revealed that Alternaria alternata (Fr.) keissler, Biopolaris australiensis (Ellis) Tsuda & ueyama, Cladosporium herbarum (pers.) Lind Gary, Fusarium oxyporum schelecht, F.solani (Mort.) sacc, Phoma leveillei Boerema and Bollen, Phoma glomerata (corda) wollenw and Thielaviopsis paradoxa(Deseynes) Hohn, gave typical symptoms of leaf spot on tested leaves. It was also found that disease severity was increased on outer leaves (older leaves) compared with younger leaves and on upper surface more that lower surface and on north side more than south side. Evaluation of five fungicide revealed that score (difenoconazole) inhibited completely the radial growth of tested fungi field experiment showed that score, Mancozab and Topas reduced the infection rate (r) for 0.032, 0.044 and 0.049 cm/day respectively compared to 0.098 cm/day for control treatment.

Study of Lesser Date Moth infestation and economic losses on Date palm cvs. Sayer and Halawy

Mohammed Mahdi Mezeal; Aquil Adnan Al-yousif

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 82-92

The infestation percentage of Lesser Date Moth Batrachedra amydraula Meyrick (Cosmopterygidae : Lepidoptera ) and economic losses were studied on Date palm Phoenix dectylifera L. cvs. Sayer and Halawy throughout the fruiting season 2007 in Shatt-Alarab region Basrah. The results elucidated that infestation with B. amydraula on both cultivars of palm started at the beginning of fruit development stage Hebabok , infestation percentage were 4.75rand 0.5% respectively at the first week of May . Infestation rate increased rapidly, and reached a maximum percentage of 67% at the first week of June, at the end of the Hebabok stage of cv. Sayer . While the highest percentage 64.5% was recorded at the end of fruit development stage Chemerii of cv. Halawy , at the end of the third week of June . The infestation with insect disappeared on khelal stage of Sayer cultivar at the beginning of the forth week of July . While the infestation on khelal stage of Halawy cultivar disappeared at the end of second week of July. The results showed that the average number of fruits per Sayer tree were 7243.75 after fruit set at the forth week of April and became 2711.25 fruit / tree (total yield 22.59 Kg) at the forth week of July, because the number of fallen fruits were 4532.5 fruit/ tree (37.77 Kg) , which included 1012.5 infested fruit/ tree (8.43Kg ), whereas that average number of fruits per Halawy tree were 5416.25 fruit /tree at the beginning of the forth week of April and became 2231.5 fruit / tree ( total yield 17.52 Kg ) at the second week of July, and found that the number of fallen fruits 3184.75 fruit /tree (25.01Kg), which included 381 infested fruit /tree (2.99Kg) , for that The infestation with B. amydraula on both cultivars Sayer and Halawy caused economic losses , reached 27.19 and 14.58% respectively .

Effects of some Insecticides and plant extracts on scale Insect (Partatoria blanchardi Targ on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

Ghazwan Faisal Al.saaidy

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 93-101

The study was conducted some pesticides and plant extracts on
Parlatoria blanchardi on Phoenix dactylifera L.
The results showed overtop the Confidor on Actara in activity ratio of Date Scales insect when it reached to (78.77% , 60.25%) respectively.
There was significant difference between the effect of plan extracts on activity ratio , plan extracts of Clerodendron inerme was highest ratio of killing was 27.64% whereas Eucalyptus camaldulensis the lowest rate of killing which reached 12.32 % respectively.
There was no significant difference between concentrate used and plan extracts with in the time treatment.

Changes In The Pigments Of Plant Growth And Maturity During Cultivars Eight Of Dates Palm

Kadhim Ibrahim Abbas; Abdul Kareem Mohamed Abd

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 102-111

This study was conducted during the 2006 growing season in the date palm Research Center / University of Basra view to examining the content of chlorophyll and carotene through phases Alkamri and Khalal of eight cultivars of dates palm (Hallawi, Sayer, Am Adehin , Maktoum, Albraim, Albarhi , lilwy, El Khadraoui) results showed dye Chlorophyll is the ruling at the stage Alkamri and all group were cultivar Sayer significant superiority on all group in the content of the plants described in phases Alkamri was recorded (18.12, 4.94) mg / 100 gm dry weight respectively to the total content of chlorophyll. While the content of chlorophyll A, B (0.52, 1.43) and (8.44, 4.46) for the two phases of growth and( Alkamri, Khalal) respectively, while each of the above cultivars excellence Hallawi, Sayer and El Khadraoui, who did not witness them significant differences in content of carotene in the Alkamri compared with the other cultivars .Either at the stage of Alkamri has exceeded significant cultivars (Hallawi, Albraim, Albarhi ) in content of carotene.

Yellowing leaves phenomenon on date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.)

Ramiz Mahdi Salih AL-Asadi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 112-120

This study was conducted to describe yellowing leaves case observed on date palm of many regions in Basrah .
In this study no fungi were isolated from leaves explored yellowing symptoms whereas, Alternaria alternata fungus was isolated from spots founded on leaves surface
Pathogenicity test showed that A. alternata was unable to induce the yellowing symptoms , but caused spotting around inoculated locations .
The microscopic examination to tissues section showed the tissues were healthy and not found any fungal growth inside it.

Studies the production of Cellulase from the growing of Aspergillus niger on the date palm leaves.

Jamal A-K Abdulrheam

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 121-128

This study had been made to prove the probability at the production of Cellulase enzyme from the growing of Aspergillus niger on nutrient media in different conditions
It has been proved that the optimum pH of the nutrient media was 5.0; this media gave activity of 2.8 unit/ml. The optimum temperature of incubation for the productions of the enzyme was 24 C .This temperature gave activity of 2.4 unit/ml .The optimum incubation period was 8 day, this period gave activity 3.2 unit/ml.
Butter result had been obtained when using 40% of date palm leaves powder instead of CMC material. This method gave 2.4 unit /ml.

Effect of type and volume of culture vessels on media and differentiation of explants of date palm c.v. Ashkar

AQIL .A.S AL-KHALIFA; Ahmed M. W. AL; MEAHY

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-137

This study was effectuated at Date Palm tissue culture laboratory. (Date Palm Research Center –Basrah University) during 2007, to study the effect of type and volume of culture vessels with lids on media and differentiation of explants . the results showed that type of culture vessels influences on media characteristics ,were test tube both type of lids superior in keeping perkily for along time in comparison with another vessels of culture ,and also in weigh of media ,while ratio of pollution were high in glass jars in comparison with another vessels. Ether effect of type culture vessels on growth and differentiation of explants , test tube vessel led to have higher length of plantlet ,while the glass jars have higher length and number of roots were lowly for plantlet inside flask and tube with plastic lids.