ISSN: 1816-0379

Volume 6, Issue 1

Volume 6, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2007, Page 1-114

The effect of IAA and other auxins on the growth of date palm(Phoenix dactylifera L.) shoot tips and callus

utbi; Sabeh D. Al; Faris M. Al-Husaibi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-14

Shoot tips and callus of some cultivars of date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.)were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog) and GM5 (Gambourge B5) media byusing auxin IAA mainly and other auxins NAA, 2,4-D and IBA.The results showed a significant superiority of cultivar Hillawi than CVS.Zahdi, Barhee, Braim and Khasab for growth value and dry weight of shoot tipsegments. There is a significant superiority of auxin IAA in MS medium than both IAAand 2,4-D in GM5 for growth value and dry weight for shoot tip segments of CV.Hillawi, and significant superiority of auxin IAA at level 100mg/L than auxin NAA(100mg/L) for growth value and dry weight of shoot tip segments of cv. Hillawi , andalso a significant superiority of auxin IAA (10mg/L) than IAA at levels (0, 25,100mg/L) for growth value an dry weight of both shoot tips segments and leavesprimordia of cv. Sayer. Finally there is a significant superiority of auxin IAA (10mg/L)than auxins NAA, IBA and 2,4-D at the same levels for growth value of embryogeniccallus of cvs. Barhee and Hillawi whereas the superiority was for both IAA, NAA, thanthe rest auxins for embryo length for cvs. Barhee and Hillawi



Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-21

Twenty-two different fungal species belong to eighteenth genera were
isolated from seven cultivars of Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera L. infected
with leaf spot disease from Shaat-Alarab orchards. The results of
pathogencity test on the leaf of Zuhdi c.v elucidated the pathogenic effect
of Mycosphaerella sp.; Nigrospora oryzae ; Ulocladium atrum ; Epicoccum
purpurascens ; Alternaria chlamydospora & Pestalotia sp. which
stimulated the symptoms of leaf spot. The recording of N. oryzae ; E.
purpurascens , A. chlamydospora & Pestalotia true pathogen on Date
Palm leaf was the first time in Iraq.The results of leaf spot disease field
survey explained high susceptibilty of Zuhdi c.v to infection with infection
percentage reached 68%, followed by Sayer c.v, while Khadraoy c.v
showed the lowest suscepitable(10.20%). The results showed that the
phenolic compounds content of khadraoy & Sayer c.v leaf(%) were the
highest 2.40 ,2.50%, respectively, with significant diferrence than the other
لد: ٦ العدد: ١ السنة ٢٠٠٧  مجلة البصرة لأبحاث نخلة التمر ا
cultivars, while Zuhdi c.v had the lowest percentage of phenolic
content.The results of fungicides screening proved the efficiency of
Carbendazim treatment which led to inhibite the growth of pathognic fungi
completely in lquid and solid media, followed by Beltanol.The
carbendazim treatment led to decrease significantely the infection rate
(3.70 cm in control) to 0.25 cm.

Effect Of Tropical storage and It´s period On Some Pesticides Stability and Biological Evaluation against The dust mite of date palm Oligonychus afrasaiticus (McG) (Acari: Tetranychidae) In The Field

Alaa Hassan Al-Fartoosy

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 22-42

The study was carried out to deterging the tropical storage effect (40 and 54
±2) C°and storage period (4,8,12 and 16)weeks on stability of Hophos ,
Endosulfan and Vap – Malathion by stability test , acidity and wettability , In
addition to biological evaluation of pesticides before and after them storage
against the spider mite dust Oligonychus afrasaiticus on date trees fieldly.
The results showed that the tropical storage cause in formulating oily layer
separation of Hophos and cream sedimentation of Endosulfan ,The Hophos
affected more than Endosulfan and this affected increased by increasing of the
temperature and the storage period .
The study showed the thickness of layer and cream sedimentation were
more when the usage the hardness water , whereas the normally water.
The results elucidated the affecting of the wettable powder formulation by
tropical storage, so the wettability was not exceeded after 16 weeks of storage in
( 40 and 54 ±2) C° 2 minutes respectively.
Acidity of tested pesticides were increased by increasing the temperature.
The Hophos was more acidity followed by the Endosulfan and vap – Malathion.
About the biological evaluation of pesticides , The vap – Malathion surpassed in
decreasing the number of dust mite from 35.3 mite 10 fruits to 2.6 mite 10 fruits
after 14 days from treatment with out any significant difference before the storage of
pesticides in (40 and 54 ±2) C° and unstorage pesticides, the ratio of numbers of mite
reached to 9.4, 10.8, 10.8 mite 10 fruits respectively after 14 days from the treatment.

Comparison study of some features of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. propagated by tissue culture with barhee off shoot and seedling plant

Usama N.J Al-meer; Oraas Tariq Yaseen

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 43-53

The present study was undertaken at tissue culture laboratory/Date
Palm Research Center-Basrah university to study comparison some
feature of date palm plantlets cultivar Barhee propagated by tissue
culture, with barhee offshoot and seedling plant.
The main results of this study were:
1-It was found that no different significant between barhee plant
propagated by tissue culture ,offshoot and seedling in the chlorophyll
content and that mean plant propagated by tissue culture able to
photosynthesis .
2-it was found that the wax content of plantlet leaves propagated by
tissue culture was very low comparison with offshoot and seedling
3-the leaves of seedling plant had high number of stomata comparison
with offshoot and plant propagated by tissue culture.
4- The plants of date palm propagated by tissue culture lose a lot of
water from the leaves comparison with offshoot and seedling plant.

Study Of Comparison Four Pollen Gran And Effect On Fruit Characterisson Of Date Palm cv Um-Aldehin And Bream


Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 54-63

The present study is carried out during the growth season .In Abo Al
Khasseb ,Basrsh to study certain physic ,chemical characteristics date palm fruit
cv Um Aldehin and Bream at two stage Rutab and Tamer and pollination of
pollen grans of four date palm cultivars ,(Ghannamy Ahmar ,Ghannamy
Akhder ,Kikri adi and Khikri samasmi ).The result showed Ghannamy Akhder
had significant sffect on fruit set of the Um Aldehin and Ghannamy Akhder
significant excellence on fruit yield of both femal cultivars .Khikri samasmi had
significant excellence fruits ripeness was only with Bream .Whil the Khikri
samasmi had significant excellence on fruit oil content of both femal cultivars ,
and significant effect on total suger content in Tamer stage only with femal
cultivars Um Aldehin and significant effect in Rutab and Tamer only with cv
Bream .The result showed Khikry samasmi significant effect on reduced suger
content of Um Aldehin in Tamer stage .The finally pollination had no significant
on sucros content of both femal cultivar and both stage Rutab and Tamer.

Regeneration of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) CV. Sherafy from different apical explants In vitro

Khaun Ali Muhsen

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 64-80

This study has been performed to determine the response of apical
sources [shoot tip ; Auxillary buds ; sub apical tissues ; leaf primordial and
flower buds] when cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 30 mg/L of
NAA ; 3 mg/L of 2ip and 3 g/L activated charcoal in inducing ; formation of
callus and production of somatic embryos on the same medium enriched with
10gm/L of NAA ; 2 mg/L of 2ip and 2 g/L activated charcoal and formation
organogenesis from callus on two media which were supplemented with 3 mg/L
2ip ; 1 mg/L 2ip and 1 mg/L NAA ; 250 mg/L charcoal for each media.
Results revealed that the flower buds surpassed in the time requested for
callus estabelish ment and the plant sources ratio which produced the callus, with
significant difference than other explant, the sub apical tissue failed to produce
the callus also, the shoot tip treatment had the highest average of produced callus
than other explant. Statistical analysis proved that the difference between flower
buds and shoot tip was not significant in the parameter of the dry weight of
callus. Which cultivated in ms medium supplemented with 10 gm/L of NAA
after two months from culturing, while the dry weight decreased significantly in
leaf primordial than other explant.
Flower buds treatment had the optimam periode to estabelish the
cylinderial embryos and number in comparision with other explant while the
longest periode recorded in leaf primordial treatment.
Resulted showed that the callus cultured on the medium supplemented
with 3 mg/L of 2ip decreased significantly in the requested periode for
organogenesis growth which were (186 and 213.25) days respectively.
The interaction between (shoot tip and 3 mg/L of 2-ip) was surpassed the
explant of shoot tip and 1 mg/L of 2ip in the requested time for appearance of
organogenesis, also some individual cylindrical somative embryos developed
from the callus cultured on the above media with some secondary embryos when
cultured on the same medium produced muttistem plantlets .

Changes In Endogenus Hormones Levles During Growth And Maturity Of Date Palm Fruit Cv. Hillawi

ABDUL KAREEM M ABED; Aqeel Hadi Abdul- Wahid

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 81-92

The changes in the levels of some hormones –like substances during four
stages of date palm cv Hillawi fruit development (hababok, chimry ,khalal and
rutab)were studied. The results also showed that the level auxine-like substances
was high in hababok stage (487.80mg/kg fresh weight) then decrease was
occurred in chimri stage followed by an increase in the level during the
substances ripening stages .The Gibberelins and Cytokinins like substances were
same in behavour they showed high level in first stage 158.33-166.66 mg/kg
respectively the level were decreasing with the later stage of fruit ripening.

Effect of Chemical Treatments on Germinating Seeds of Date Palm ( Phoenix dactylifera, L.)

Ebtihaj Handal AL- Temimi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 93-100

This Study was Carrid Out to Investigate the Possibility of Using The
Different Treatments ( HNO3 20 % , HNO3 10 % , NaOH 20 % , NaOH 10
%)for Germinating Seeds of Date Palm.
Results Indicated that ( HNO3 20 % and NaOH 10 % ) Treatments had
Significant Effect in Increasing of Germinating Seeds of Date Palm .
Statistical Analytical Results Showed there were a Significant Effects
Cultivars on Germinating Seeds Ratio the ( C.V Zahdi ) was Significantly
Increased the Germinating SeedsRatio Compared to C.V Hellawi and Kidrawi.

Desining , Manufacturing And Testing Of A Semi Mixed Solar Dryer For Date Drying

Asaad R. AL-Hilphy

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 101-114

A semi mixed solar dryer for date drying was designed , manufactured and
tested Its consist of a plastic and glass cover , matel .absorber wire , ban , their
color is a black and non brightness , chimney and small pipe solar collector . A
semi mixed solar dryer was fixed on the iron body. The result showed that the
mean of available solar radiation energy in Basrah city in September was 764.30
W/m2 , and mean of temperature in the solar dryer arrived to 72 oC .
The moisture content for date was reduced with increasing drying time , the
reducing with usage of solar dryer was higher than the natural sun drying .
Drying date by solar dryer wasn’t moisture absorber from weather compared
with the natural sun drying, Daily drying efficiency was reduced with increasing
of drying time , while its for the solar dryer was higher than the natural sun