ISSN: 1816-0379

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2006, Page 1-149


Batool H.Faleh; Alaa Abdulkhalik Sawad

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

T he effect of palm pollen grain extracts (Phoenix dactylifera L)on the
spermatogenic activity has been studied by observation of the sperm
characteristics, weights of testes and the histological development which begins
at the testes wall tubules as a primary and secondary spermatocytes .Fifteen
male rabbits were divided into three equal groups, the first control group
received (3ml) of normal saline, the second treated with 5 mlkg Body weight
of palm pollen extract, While the third group treated with 25mlBody weight of
the extract.
Palm pollen grain extracts increase the sperm cells count and decreased the
percentage of motile sperm in male rabbits, On the other hand the palm pollen
grain extracts has showed a significant increase in spermatogenesis at seminal
tubules by increasing the primary and secondary spermatocytes in compairing
with control animals.

Designing; manufacturing of an electrical instrument for pesticides spraying, and test their efficiency on date palm Phoenix dactylifera L.

Aquil S. Hussein; Mohammed H. Abass; Mohammed A. Hammed; Asaad R.Ulhelfy

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

n electrical instrument was designed and manufactured for pesticides
spraying on date palm trees, its consisted of many telescopic columns, tank,
centrifugal pump, battery which is 12 volt and nozzles, the farmer can use this
instrument to spray of the pesticides without lifting to the top of date palm. Results of
this study indicated that the discharge of instrument was 10 m3/hr, the productivity
was higher than the traditional sprayer, which was 42% ; its field efficiency was 90%
and when used in the field to control date palm fungal leaf spot, the results proved
that the electrical instrument was most efficient than traditional sprayer in reducing of
the infection rate (cm/ day). Spraying efficiency was 67% in the electrical instrument,
while reached 51% in traditional sprayer.

Susceptibility of Different Date Palm Cultivars to Infection By Terminal Bud Rot Caused By Thielaviopsis paradoxa (Deseyn) Hohn.

Mohammed. A. Fayed; Abbas M. Jasm; Ramiz. M. Al-Assadi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 29-41

This study was carried out in laboratories of plant protection department,
Agriculture College. to evaluate susceptibilty of different cultivars of Date palm
(produced by seed and tissue culture) to infection by terminal bud rot disease
caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa.
The results of survey of terminal bud rot disease in different locations in
Basrah province showed that the highest percentage of infection was recorded in
orchards of shatt-Al-Arab which reached 33.51% followed by Al-Qarna and
Abu Al-Khasseb. While the lowest percentage of infection was recorded in Al-
Medina reached (4.54%).
The results also showed that was a positive correlation between the
infection rate and the salinity, alkaloids of soil.
It was found that the cultivars of date palm (Hilawii, Sayer, Breim and
Zahdi) were the most susceptible to infection by T.paradoxa. The percentage of
infection was (36.66, 34.8, 30.9 and 29.11%) respectively.
The study proved the significant differences between callus treated with
cultural filtrate of T.paradoxa and untreated callus. Weight of callus decreased
as the concentration of fungus culture filtrate increased, callus weight was
(0.382gm) at concentration of 20% which then decreased significantly to
(0.274gm) when the concentration was 30% growth completely failed at 50 and
75% concentration.
It was also found that all seedling of different cultivars of date palm
produce by seed was susceptible to artificial infection of T.paradoxa. symptoms
appeared on seedling as yellowing, wilting and brewing on crown area-However
the most decreases in fresh and dry weight was found in seedling of Hilawii,
Sayer, Breim and Zahdi while the lowest decrease was in Berhi seedling. Many
fungi like Fusarium spp was isolated from shoot and root system of date palm
and from larva of shoot Pseudophilus testaceus but T.paradoxa was not isolated
from larva of P.testaceus.

Effect of Storage at Different Temperature on The Quality Properties of Date Powder

Alaa Jabbar Al-Manhal; Ali Ahmed Sahi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 42-55

This study included the effect of storage at 5Co and 25 Co for 6 months
on some physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of date powder
which produce from some local cultivars. The statistic results pointed a nonsignificant
difference for the effect of temperature on the averages of moisture
and pH. While results pointed a significant difference for the effect of
temperature on the averages total sugar and color for the powders of the three
varieties. Microbiological lest for kalal mutbuukh powder showed in creased in
total bacteria count, yeast and mold after (6) months. While there was no growth
of coliform bacteria during storage.

Functional properties of protein concentrate produced fromdate seed of some local date varieties

Ali Ahmad Sahi; Luma Jasim Al-Anber

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 56-70

The aim of this study was preparing protein concentrate from date seed
of there local varieties (Hallawi, Sayer, Barhee) using sodium hydroxide at
pH (11.8). The results of chemical analysis showed that Hallawi & Barhee
contained high protein percent (5.61% - 5.48% respectively) with high
significant differences than Sayer varieties (4.32%). However, Sayer
varieties contained high percent of oil (12.05%) with high significant
differences compare with Hallawi (11.29%)& Barhee (10.32%) varieties,
while moisture and ash did not show any significant differences among the
varieties. The chemical analysis of protein concentrate showed that Barhee
content high protein percent (37.3%) compare with Hallawi & Sayer,
which content 36.1% & 36.69% respectively. Functional properties for
protein concentrate did not show any significant among varieties for
solubility, fat banding, foam & gelation properties. However, the results as
fellow: solubility (23.2 - 24.2%), fat banding (180-170%), foam (30 ml
at1% conc.), gelation from at 20% conc. .The property of water absorption,
statistical analysis showed high significant differences among the varieties
and different pH. However, Sayer gave higher ratio for water absorption at
pH7. Viscosity property showed high significant differences among
varieties and at different temperature. Hallawi varieties has high viscosity
at 30C (0.873 centipoise).

Study of Optimum Conditions for the Cellulose Production Using Aspergillus niger from Date Pits Powder

Alaa K. Nueama; Alaa J. Al-Manhal

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 71-79

T he enzyme activity for five fungal isolates from Aspergillus niger
growth on a solid substrate was studied and it was found that best isolate ( A5 ) .
The optimum conditions for the enzyme production was studied. It was found
that the enzyme activity ( 2.8 u/ml ) was obtained at PH 5 as compared with
these pH ( 3 , 4 , 6 and 7 ) . while that optimum temperature at 22 Cº as the
enzyme activity increased ( 2.3 u/ml ) Compared with these ( 18 , 20 , 24 , 26
and 28 Cº ) and the optimum incubation time was 8 days as the enzyme activity
increased from 0.65 to 3.3 u/ml after ( 2, 4 , 6 and 8 days ) of incubation . The
optimum conditions was using for production cellulase from substitution a
cellulosic solid substrate as date pits powder for the growth at levels ( 10 , 20 ,
30 , 40 , 50 , 60 , 70 and 80 % ) and best substitution at 50 % it was found that
hydrolysis diameter 4.2 cm and the enzyme activity ( 3.4 u/ml ) .

Changes In Endogenus Hormones Levles During Growth And Maturity Of Date Palm Fruit Cv. Hillawi

ABDUL KAREEM M ABED; Aqeel Hadi Abdul- Wahid

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 80-90

The changes in the levels of some hormones –like substances during four
stages of date palm cv Hillawi fruit development (hababok, chimry ,khalal and
rutab)were studied. The results also showed that the level auxine-like substances
was high in hababok stage (487.80mg/kg fresh weight) then decrease was
occurred in chimri stage followed by an increase in the level during the
substances ripening stages .The Gibberelins and Cytokinins like substances
were same in behavour they showed high level in first stage 158.33-166.66
mg/kg respectively the level were decreasing with the later stage of fruit

three Date Cytokinins-like substances content in the roots of Dalm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars

Usama N.J Al-meer

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 105-115

determine the This study was conducted during the cultivation season ٢٠٠٤ to
three cultivars of Date level of Cytokinines-like substances in the roots of
٢،٥ and ٨ yars. The results elucidated Palm(Hillawi,Zahdi and Barhi)at three age
that there are significant difference in the level of Cytokinines-like substances
according to the type of cultivars and the ages Zahdi roots recorded the highest
averaje content of Cytokinines-like substances incontrast with Hillawi and Barhi cv,it
were ٤١,٢٦،٣٠,٠٦ Mg/Kg as fresh weight for th ags ٢ and ٥ years,for Zahdi
The results also explained that the immature offshoot had high content of
Cytokinines-like substances incontrast with mature date palm trees.
The results of this study proved that the offshoots carrier date palm tree had high
contents of Cytokinines-like substances, while the content level was less in the
mature trees,finally the results showed no significant difference among mature trees
of studied cv.

Gibberellin effect on the Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) cv.Hillawi infection with physiological damage white end

Usama N.J AL-Meer

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 116-126

This study was carried out during the cultivation season 2004 in Abu-Al Khassieb
location to determine the effect of growth regulator GA3 with different concentration
on some fruits features of Hillawi cv. at at two dates (1/6& 1/7 ) .
This study explained that the fruit spraying with GA3 at the first date led to decrease
fruits weight average ; while the spraying with GA3 concent.75ppm at the second
date led to increase the weight of fruit significantly &reached 6.78 g in contrast with
untreated fruits.
The results, also showed that the spraying with all concentration of GA3 for each
dates led to increase the water content significantly in the fruits of Hillawi cv & led to
decrease the rate of fruit ripening .
The results proved that GA3 concentration spraying at all dates led to reduce the
white end percentage with physiological damages ,this reducing was correlated
positively with the increasing of concentration .the lowest percentage of white end
was in the treatment of 75ppm which was 15.12 & 14.07 % for each dates
respectively in contrast with un treatment fruits 27.47% .

Effect of Some Fruits Seed Powders Addition on The Growth and Development of Embyrogenic Callus of Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar Berhi

Ansaam M. S; Ahmad M. W; Montaha J. K; Akeel S. H

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 127-136

This study was conducted to determine the effect of some fruits seed
powders on the growth of embryogenic callus of Date palm cultivar Berhi
The results of this study showed that the apple seed powder treatment

Effect Of Amino Acid Cysteine And Its Derivative Cystine On Growth Of Callus And Formation Of Somatic Embryos In Date Palm Tissue Culture Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Ashkar

Usama A. M. Al-Abadi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 137-149

T he study was conducted at tissue culture laboratory – date palm research
center – basrah university , to elucidate the effect of addition of amino acid cysteine and
its derivative cysteine at concentrations 0 , 25 ,75 , 125 and 250 mg /l on growth of
embryogenic callus and development of somatic embryos for date palm cv. Ashkar in
(MS) Murashige and Skoog medium .
Fresh and dry weight , number of somatic embryos and its browning percentage
were determined as marker for effect of these two amino acids on callus tissue .
Results showed that cystine at conc. 125 mg /l gave the highest fresh and dry
weights of callus which were 1.57 and 0.158 gm , respectively , while there was no
significant difference between cysteine’s treatments and control (0 mg /l) .
In addition , cystine at conc. 75 mg /l showed highest quantity of somatic embryos
which was 7 with significant difference from other treatments, while There was no
significant difference between cysteine’s treatments and control. The study showed that
cysteine at concentrations 25, 75 and250 mg /l gave the least browning percentage of
somatic embryos with significant difference from control ,while there was no
significant difference between cystine’s treatments and control.
Thus , the results showed that cystine stimulated growth of callus and formation
of somatic embryos better than cysteine , while cysteine inhibited the browning better
than cystine .