ISSN: 1816-0379

Volume 4, Issue 1

Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2005, Page 1-162


EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI TO DATE PALM Phoenix dactylifera & CYCAS Cycas revoluta

MOHAMMED H. ABASS

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

T his study was conducted at the Laboratories.of Date Palm Research Center-
Basrah univ. to determine the extracellular enzymatic activity of some Date Palm and
Cycas fungal pathogen which were Fusarium solani ;Mauginiella scaettae and
Thielaviopsis paradoxa in their production to Protease ;cellulose ;Lipase ;Amylase
and Phenol oxidase enzymes on special solid media designed to quantative test.
The results elucidated that the pathogenic fungi varied in their ability to produce
degredating enzymes, the causal agent of Cycas decline F. solani showed a positive
test for all studied enzymes with varying degree of activity , the highest extracellular
activity were in Protease and Amylase test, while the causal agent of Date Palm
inflorescence rot M. scaettae recorded highest activity for Protease test and good
activity for Phenol oxidase enzyme , the pathogen gave a negative test for Amylase .
The pathogenic fungus T. paradoxa the causal agent of Terminal Bud rot of Date
Palm had a moderate activity for Protease ; Lipase and gave a negative test for
Amylase.

Effect Of Hexane extract Of Euphorbia hleoscopia On Some Biological Fields Of Dust Mite Oligonychus afrasiaticus(Acari: Tetranchidae)

Nasser H. Al-Dosary

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 11-23

This study has been done to explore the efficiency of hexan extract of Euphorbia
heleoscopia on some biological fields of dust mite Oligonychus afrasiaticus in lap.
The extract was used in three concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1)%,the results showed
that the hexane extract in Conc.1% gave the highest percentage of killing against dust
mite eggs which amount to 44.4% as well as gave the highest percentage of killing
against larvae stage, nymph stage and adults which amount to(73, 67.78, 59.34)%,
respectively.
The study demonstrated that the Conc.1% achieve the longest duration of egg
incubation which was 4.8 days while the shortest incubation time occur at
Conc.0.25% which was 3.8 day. For the efficiency of hexane extract of Oligonychus
afrasiaticus on development time of both larvae an nymph and on generation time,
the results proved that the Conc. 1% extended the development time 4.35 days for
larvae, 7.78 days for nymph ant till 17.85 days for generation time.
In addition the hexan extract has activity on the number of product eggs from
treated female and parentage of hatch eggs, the concentration 1% decreased the
number of produced eggs to 4.67 eggs in compare with control which reached 12.67
eggs while the percentage of killed eggs was 23.67%s.

Effect of different nitrogen and carbon sources on the growth of Mauginiella scaettae the causal pathogen of inflorescence rot disease of date palm

Abdullah H. AL-Saadoon; Samir K. Abdullah; Abdulnabi H. AL-Issa

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 24-36

The effect of different nitrogen and carbon sources on the growth of the three
isolates of Mauginiellae scaettae were investigated . The study revealed that the
fungus utilized a broad range of nitrogen and carbon sources. Among nitrogen
sources, maximum growth was obtained on medium containing organic nitrogen
sources such as peptone. Less growth occurred in Inorganic nitrogen sources such as
NaNO3 and KNO3. Maximum growth occurred on media supplemented with
galactose or glucose as carbon sources , while less growth was observed on media
containing pectin or starch.

Suscpetability of different cultivars of Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) to Mauginiella scaettae the causal agent of inflorescnce rot.

Mohammed A.Hameed

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 37-53

The present work has been undertaken to evaluate the suscpetability of different
cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) to infection with inflorescence rot
disease caused by the fungus Mauginiella scaettae.Results of field survey explained
that the highest percentage of infection were found in Shatt-Alarab and Al-Dayer
orchards and reached 1.8 ,2%, respectively, while the lowest percentage found in
Abu-Alkhassieb orchards. The highest percentage of infection recorded in Green
Gannami cultivar which was (6.1%), while the lowest percentage recorded in Barhee
cultivars, the results of study showed a high inhibitiory effect was by the fngal
isolates 7 and 8 of M.scaetae on the % viability of pollen grain compared with 92.5%
in control treatment, reduced significantely and reached 35.1%and 48.2% for two
isolates,respectively ,the inhibition effect of colony culture filterate of 7 and 8
isolates were the same on the germination of pollen grain.
The results revealed that the tissue extract of different inflorescence cultivars
varied in their effect on radial growth inhibitors of isolate 7,the lowest percentage of
inhibiton was found in tissue extract obtained from Barhee (15%),while there was no
negative effect with Sayer treatment.
Highest carbohydrate and Tanins content in pollen grain were found in Hillawi,
Sayer and Green gannami,while the lowest in Barhee.The highest tanins content
recorded in Barhee compared with other cultivars.

EFACT OF THE PACKAGE KIND AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND STORAGE BEHAVIOR OF DATE FRUITS CV.BARHI.

Dhia Ahmed Taain

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 54-70

This investigation was carried out to study the effect of the package
kind and storage temperature on qualitative charactaristics and storage
behavior of date fruits cv. Barhi at Al-kalal and Al-rutab stage .Fruits were
packed in two kinds oe packages (polyethylene bags and cardboard boxes)
and stored at 5±2˚c ( in the refrigerator ) and a room storage temperature .
Results showed that fruits stored in refrigerator and packed in the two
kinds of packages were riped with the percentage of 100% after three
months of storage however , this process was slower in polyethylene bags
as compared with cardboard boxes . In the same time fruits entired
rippening phase (rutab)after 9 days storage at room temperature .
R esults also showed that fruits stored in refrigerator and packed in
polyethylene bags was superior to cardboard boxes in their content of
water however, they were the most deteriorated one. Results mentioned
that their were no significant deferences between the two kinds of package
in their effect on total and reducing sugar however,the content of total
soluble solids of dates packed in cardboard boxes was more than the one in
polyethylene bags during the storage periods and at the end of storage in
refrigerator.

Effect of storage temperature and packing method in storability and some characteristics of date palme c.vdayri

Waheed; Gasim; Abbas

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 71-86

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of storag temperature
(cold storag 4-5cº and room temperature 28-30cº) and packing method (fruit
with cap and without cap). on storability of date palm fruitc.v Dayri.
The abstained results showed that the cold storag (4-5)cº led to reduce the
infection by ephestia cautella (walk) and increase the total soluble solid, total
and reducing sugar, water content and pulp weight in comparison with storag of
fruit at room temperature, also same, packing fruit with cap in comparison with
fruit without cap.
The interaction between cold storage and pack fruit with cap causes
prevent the infection by ephestia cautella (walk) whereas fruits were superior in
stydied characteristics in comparison with fruit in another treatment.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME LOCAL DATE USING GEL FILTRATION CHROMATOGRAPHY & ELECTROPHORESIS

Ali Ahmad Sahi; Luma Jasim Al-Anber

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 87-110

The present study is concerned with studying physical & chemical examinations for
dates & seeds of some local varieties such as: Hallawi, Sayer & Barhee. The results
of the statistical analysis about the physical properties showed that there were high
significant differences among varieties in weight, diameter, size, flesh weight & seed
weight characters, but the date length did not appear any significant differences
among the varieties.
T he results of the chemical composition of destoned dates showed that Barhee
variety was highest in content of moisture & fat whom reached 31.43 & 0.6%
respectively & with high significant differences compare with varieties of Hallawi &
Sayer, while Sayer variety showed higher content of ash which reached 2.3%, while
protein content did not show any significant differences among the varieties.
Moreover, the results of the protein extraction by different solvents for date
showed that the water soluble proteins (albumins) was highest which was about 46.28
- 65.07%, while was lower to salt soluble proteins (globulins) which was about 4.04 -
6.03% from the total amount of proteins.
G el filtration for water soluble proteins which extracted from date showed that
existence three major peaks, while salt soluble proteins showed existence two major
peak with one minority peak between them, for all varieties. In case of alcohol
soluble proteins (prolamins) demonstrate existence small peak followed by one
majority big peak, while alkali soluble proteins (glutenins) showed one majority big
peak between two small peaks.
Electrophoresis studies showed that the salt soluble proteins extracted from date:
Hallawi, Sayer & Barhee, appearance three major bands whom were molecular
weights about 61000-62400 Dalton for first band, 27600-37500 Dalton for second
band & 18200-23500 Dalton for third band.

Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Khalal Powder Produced From Some Local date Varieties

Ali Ahmed Sahi; Alaa Jabbar Al-Manhal

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 111-123

This study included preparation of date powder from three local date cultivars
(Zahdi, Dairi and Chibchab) and study their quality properties. The results of
chemical analysis showed that Chibchab powder had highest content of total soluble
solids, total sugar and sucrose which reached (84.66, 79.06, 56.61)% respectively and
with significant differences with Zahdi and Dairi powders. Zahdi powder had a
highest moisture content (6.25%) and lower pH (5.5) and with significant differences
with Chibchab and Dairi powders. Results of ash, tannins and total acidity did not
show any.significant differences among cultivars, Microbiological test for Khalal
mutbuukh powder showed lower in total count of bacteria, yeast and mold, while
there was no growth of coliform bacteria.
* Part

Lignin and Cellulose content in some parts of date palm Phoenix dactlifera L. Cultivars Hillawi and Barhi

Khearallah M.A. Al-Jabray; Muhssan A. Namma; Ali S. Mahdi

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 124-131

This study was carried out in date palm research center – Basrah Univ. during
cultivation season 2004. to study content of some date palm parts(leaflets, fiber, frond
midrib, fruit stalks and frond bases) of two cultivars Hillawi and Barhi from lignin
and cellulose.
The result explained there is no significant difference between the studied cultivars of
their content of lignin and cellulose. Also the result showed the highest content of
lignin appear in frond bases it had (37.63%) with significant difference of other
studied parts, and no significant difference between the leaflets and frond midrib and
also no significant difference among leaflets, fiber and fruit stalks.
Also didn’t appear significant difference of interactions.
Also the result showed the highest content of cellulose in fiber it had (48.93%)
without significant difference of frond bases it had (47.28%), and no significant
difference between leaflets and frond midrib, the lowest content of cellulose appear
in fruit stalks it had (30.32%) with significant difference of other studied parts.
To interactions the highest content of cellulose appear in frond bases in Hillawi
cultivars it had (52.71%) without significant difference of fiber of two studied
cultivars. While a lowest content appear in fruit stalks in Barhi cultivars it had
(27.32%)

STUDY OF INVERTASE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY AND SUGARS CONTENT IN DATE PALM Phoenix dactylifera L. KHESAB variety

KHEARALLAH MOUSSA AWAD AL-JABARY

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 132-140

This study was carried out in Date Palm Research Center /Basrah University During
cultivation season 2004, to evaluate invertase enzyme activity and sugars content
during the growth and maturation stages in date palm fruits Cvs. Khasab (Chemri,
Khalal and Rutab).
The result showed that the high enzymatic activity was found in khalal stage was
(444.36) (u/kg date) , while the lower enzyme activity was found in chemri stage
which was (204.54)(u/kg date).The fruit in Rutab stage contained a high percentage
of reducing sugar where was (49.24)and a lowest contained of reducing sugar
recorded in Chemri stage was (13.87). Khalal stage contained a high percentage of
sucrose (48.38) while the Rutab and Chemri stages had no significant difference
than in sucrose content.

DETERMINE OF CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS CONTENT IN POLLEN GRAINS OF THREE DATE PALM Phoenix dactylifera MALE CULTIVARS

ABDUL KAREEM M. ABED

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 141-150

A study was conducted to determine Carbohydrates, Protein and
Phenolic compounds content in pollen grains of three date palme
cultivars,(Ghannamy Ahmar, Ghannamy Akder and Khikri adi). The study
found significant differences among the types of pollen. The highest
concentration of Carbohydrates was found in the Ghannami Ahmer
comparison with other cultivars,whil the highest concentration of protein
was found in Khikri adi (56.4%),this result was statistically significant
comparison with Ghannamy Ahmar .The protein content was (45.37%
and50.34%) in the Ghannamy Ahmar Ghannamy Akder respectively.We
did not find significant differences in the phenolic compounds content.

THE EFFECT OF SOURCE OF POLLEN AND STORAGE PERIOD ON FRUIT SET PERCENTAGE IN TEN VARIETIES OF DATE PALM

K.I. Abbas

Basrah Journal For Date Palm Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 151-162

An investigation was carried out during the growing season of 2004 in Abo-Al-
Khasseb City, with the object of having the effect of source pollen and storage period
on fruit set in ten varieties of date palm. The results showed when tested pollen grain
with acetocarmine stain and planting in feeding solution, fresh pollen grain were
better than storage after one and two years in ordinary room.
The pollination of ten female varieties were effected on percentage in fruit set of
fresh and storage of pollen grain. The female varieties were difference in the effect of
pollen type in fruit set , four of female varieties were effected but the other weren't.